Building Test Automation Framework using Selenium and TestNG

A test automation framework is proving to be a great testing resource for organizations in need. The speed and accuracy of software testing can be significantly increased through the adoption of a test automation framework. Upon that, a higher Return on Investment (ROI) can be expected and the risk can also be systematically reduced to a great extent.

In this blog, you will get to know how to build a test automation framework using Selenium and TestNG.

The need to adopt an automation framework:

An Organization’s way of doing things is defined by a framework. A proper standard is provided by the test automation framework in order to simplify the automation effort. The end result is a reduction in maintenance costs and software testing costs.

Selenium Automation Framework

Selenium automation framework:

Selenium WebDriver is focused on creating mainly three types of frameworks namely data-driven test framework, keyword-driven test framework and Hybrid test framework in order to automate manual test cases.

In a data-driven framework, the generation of test data is done from external files like CSV, XML, Excel or some database table.

In a keyword-driven test framework, all the instructions and operations are written in some external files like Excel worksheets. According to the keywords that have been written into an Excel file, the operation on UI is performed by the framework.

A Hybrid test framework is where the capabilities of both data-driven framework and hybrid framework are taken into perspective. The essence of the Hybrid test framework is inherited by the selenium framework. Different components are comprised in this framework through which the foundation for an automation framework is provided for any web application.

Components of Selenium Automation Framework

Components of Selenium automation framework:

TestNG is a testing framework that is inspired by NUnit and JUnit and ensures that new functionality is introduced that in fact makes it easier to use. By using TestNG annotations, a TestNG test case is built. There can be multiple test cases with each testing class, but, the distribution of test cases is done on the basis of the package on application modules.

A testData Excel sheet is used to drive the test data. For every row of data, one test case is dedicated. Multiple Java files are contained in Generic libraries that support a framework’s various features like web driver-specific methods, test data fetching and customized reporting.

Any application–independent reusable method that can be used for many projects such as WebdriverCommonUtill, Reporting_Lib, Excel_Lib and Driver Java class are classified under Generic Libraries.

A few reusable methods are contained in an “Excel_Lib” class that has been created and an Excel sheet is used from where test data can be fetched. Similarly, WebdriverCommonUtil class can also be implemented that contains web driver specific custom method, which can in turn be used for multiple applications such as waitForElementPresent(), waitForPageToLoad(), clickAndWait() etc.

Page Object Model (POM)

The relevance of Page Object Model (POM):

Application-specific reusable methods are contained in the business components through which the building block is formed of our automation test scripts. Several Java files are formed by breaking down the business components. Based on the application module, a business method is contained in each java file that is specific to the location.

Object Repository for web UI elements is created by Page Object Model (POM), which is a design pattern. It is considered to be an integral part of the framework. Under this model, for each web page, there should be one Page class. A Page class is used to find WebElement methods of that web page (i.e., @FindBy or @FindBys annotation are used to identify the Page factory WebElement) and also contains Page methods through which operations can be performed on those WebElements (i.e., page WebElements is accessed by getters/setters methods in Page factory).

Advantages of POM:

· Duplicate object locators (for example XPath) can be avoided among the automated test suite

· Modification, any Object ID changes are required in page class during the development phase and there is no need to make a change to test cases/automated scripts

· It becomes easy to write test cases and also looks simple (test steps can be designed by using getters).

Web events are proved to be helpful for any web application automation so that events can be viewed by triggering WebDriver. Whenever test scripts are being developed, own implementation should be written for handling events during the execution.


The inclusion of TestNG XML:

The TestNG XML file forms the core of the automation framework, through which the test classes are executed as specified in the XML file. Controlling and planning can be done through this XML file. TestNg.xml file is used to drive this framework, which contains the test suite details. A bunch of TestNG classes is contained in a test suite and there are multiple test cases available with each testNg.


If you are looking forward to implementing a test automation framework for your specific project, then do get connected with a top-notch software testing services company that will provide you with a viable testing framework in line with your project requirements.

About the author: I am a technical content writer focused on writing technology specific articles. I strive to provide well-researched information on the leading market savvy technologies.



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Bethany Wilson

Bethany Wilson

Hi, this is Bethany. I’m working as Senior Software QA Tester with TestingXperts.